老人住院常用英语 by tearen

也愿这个小小的努力为您和就医的家人增加点儿参考,减轻点儿语言负担

老人住院是新移民比较头痛的话题之一。由于这里住院费用全部包括在基本医疗保险中,医院护士与病人比例相对合理,家属可以不向国内那样操心住院期间的费用,老人的陪护和日常生活护理问题,但除老人可能不会适应医院免费的西餐饮食外,最大的担心是老人的语言交流障碍。应网友之邀,尽力避免太专业的医学术语,围绕老人在医院的需要编辑些常用医院用语,希望能在语言和相关疾病知识上给惆怅的您些帮助。

一,基本生理需要表达类, basic physical need expression:围绕吃喝排泄:eating, drinking,and waste defecation

Appetite 胃口,食欲:分poor, fair, good

Hungry 饿了:想要breakfast,lunch, dinner, or snack(间食,一般医院提供给糖尿病人,以维持血糖稳定);would like to eat;可能要vegetarian diet,即no meat food,素食

Thirsty 渴了:想要 water, juice, milk(一般医院给病人免费提供apple juice和orange juice,储存在病房的冰箱中,糖尿病病人会在间食中提供skim milk,即脱脂奶,以补充水分),would like to drink

Meal preparation,餐食准备:a food tray(餐盘,由厨房服务人员每餐送到病人table上,包括main dishes, coffee, or tea, and sugar , salt, jam等, 还要有spoon, fork, knife, napkin,即餐巾纸,加拿大人常直接叫Kleenex等);a bib (围嘴,或叫口水巾,是防止老人手抖将饭食弄到身上尴尬的那种套头围巾)

Bowel movement 大便(较正规说法),常用口语也可以说(go for) Number 2, (go for) poo,一点要说明,由于正常排泄对老人健康很重要,住院时护士每天至少早晚问两次是否排大便,When was your last bowel movement? How many times today?是否有constipation,便秘;diarrhea,腹泻;black stool,黑便等;住院期间的老人可能因生活习惯改变而出现便秘,对几日不排便的老人,护士可能在用听诊器听肠鸣音时问Any gas?有没有排气?可能根据医疗协议给用Stool softener大便软化剂,或Laxative 缓泻剂,suppository 协助排便的栓剂,最后的选择可能是enema 灌肠剂; 另外,大便的化验标本叫stool specimen。

Urination 通常指小便的正规说法,口语中说Number 1,water going, pee,void等,护士可能要问是否有frequency,尿频;urgency,尿急;dysuria,尿痛的术语,也可以简单问Is there any pain when you pee?等;小便的化验标本一般叫 urine sample

入厕方式:Go to bathroom independently,独立入厕;Go to bathroom with
assistance,需要辅助入厕,可以是护士one person assistance,or two people assistance,也可以是需要cane,手杖,或walker,老人用行走辅助器,因其四脚着地,比cane要稳些;(need) commode,需要那种放在病床边带盖的轮椅马桶,主要为行动不方便,或心衰,心绞痛活动受限病人准备的分体马桶;(need ) bedpan,卧床病人需要的便器; (need ) urinal, 男病人用的塑料尿壶,也可意叫 urine bottle,或简单叫成bottle;attends,即大小便失禁(术语incontinence)成人用的尿不湿,也叫pad,diaper,只是医务人员为区别儿童用品,避免老人尴尬特意换了名称的。

二,症状表达,symptom expression:围绕各种不适,all about discomfort;从头到脚顺序,Head to toe order

Headache,头痛;dizziness,或说lightheadedness,头晕;eye pain,眼痛;ear pain,耳痛;ringing(or roaring,hissing,buzzing,or tinkling)ear,或简单说noise in the ears,耳鸣(术语tinnitus);sore throat,嗓子疼,咽喉痛;neck pain,颈痛,可能是“落枕”那种pain,stiffness, or a “kink”in the neck,也可能是heart attack(心肌梗塞)的放射痛。

Chest pain,胸痛(术语angina 是专指心绞痛):可能是squeezing or crushing chest pain(feels like someone is sitting on your chest);胸痛可能伴有rapid or irregular heartbeat,心跳加快或心律不齐;可能伴sweating,出汗;可能伴short of breath,呼吸困难;可能伴nausea 恶心,vomiting,口语也说throw up,呕吐;可能伴lightheadedness,头晕;还可能伴pain in the stomach(abdomen)腹痛,pain in upper back后背痛,pain in neck颈痛,pain in jaw下颌痛,或伴pain in one or both arms or shoulders一侧或双侧臂痛或肩痛(是胸痛放射痛的表现)。老人汇报胸痛很重要,因为这可能是heart attack(心梗,术语myocardial infarction,简称MI)的表现;也可能是pleurisy(胸膜炎,inflammation of the membrane that surrounds the lungs),可能是pneumonia(肺炎)这两种疾病一般在深呼吸或咳嗽时胸痛加重;还可能是ulcer(胃溃疡),一般在胃区,空腹时加重(worse when your stomach is empty);可能是gallstones(胆石症)可能引起右侧(right side)胸部或肩胛骨痛,这种痛可能在半夜(in the middle of night)或餐后加重;可能是heartburn,也叫upset stomach(烧心,闹心),由胃酸过多引起,所以心内科住院的病人用药中常有洛赛克或抗酸药(Losec 或antacid),就是为了区分心绞痛和胃酸症的;另外还有一种可能是shingles,或叫herpes(带状疱疹,俗语也叫蛇盘疮,生蛇),病人可能感觉到像根带子紧缠在一侧胸部引起的锐痛,灼痛,或麻刺痛(a sharp, burning, or tingling pain)。由此大家可以看到chest pain is a big issue,必须嘱咐老人及时汇报。

Abdominal symptoms,腹部症状:
1,nausea or vomiting恶心,呕吐:可能由 stomach flu or food poisoning(胃肠感冒或食物中毒引起);可能是stress or nervousness(紧张)引起;还可能由药物(medications)引起,如抗生素(antibiotics),抗炎药(anti inflammatory drugs),某些抗心律失常药(antiarrhythmics)等;可能由糖尿病(diabetes)引起;还可能是肝炎(hepatitis),胃溃疡(ulcers),阑尾炎(appendicitis)等腹腔器官疾病的表现之一;另外,头部损伤(head injury)也可能引起恶心呕吐。
2,bowel movement,再谈大便:frequent,watery stools稀便,即腹泻(diarrhea),可能见于胃肠感冒及食物中毒(stomach flu and food poisoning), 或抗生素(antibiotics)的副作用;stools are dry and difficult to pass干便,即便秘(constipation);bloody or black,tarry stools黑便(术语melena),除特殊食物因素外,见于消化道溃疡(ulcers);pain during bowel movements排便时肛门(anus)痛,bright red blood on surface of stool or toilet paper便鲜血,此上两项见于直肠问题(rectal problems),如痔疮(hemorrhoids)等。
3,abdominal pain,腹痛:可能见于阑尾炎(appendicitis),胰腺炎(pancreatitis),肠道憩室(diverticulitis),或胆石症(gallstones),肾石症(kidney stones)等
4,urination,再谈小便:pain or burning while urinating尿痛,可能见于老人尿路感染(Urinary Tract Infection,简称UTI),肾结石(kidney stones),或老年男性前列腺问题(prostate problems,包括前列腺炎prostatitis,前列腺肥大prostate enlargement,前列腺癌prostate cancer等);difficulty urinating or weak urine stream(men)老年男性排尿困难,也见于上述老年男性前列腺问题;blood in urine血尿,也可能见于尿路感染或肾石症(见上)。
5,painless lump or swelling in groin that comes and goes腹股沟时隐时现的无痛性包块或肿块,见于疝气(hernia)。

Bone,Muscle,and Joint pain,骨,肌肉,及关节痛:多见于关节炎(arthritis),根据发病和疼痛部位不同分为:
1,骨关节炎(osteoarthritis):关节软骨(joint cartilage)的损伤,通常是手指(fingers),髋骨(hips),膝部(knees)及背部(back)的痛(pain),僵直(stiffness)和肿胀(swelling)。
2,风湿性关节炎(rheumatoid arthritis):关节滑膜(membrane lining the joint)的炎性病变(inflammation),多个累及手(hands),腕(wrist)和脚(feet)多个关节的红,肿,热,痛和关节僵直。
3,痛风(gout):关节液中蓄积尿酸晶体(uric acid crystals),多见于大脚趾(big toe),踝骨(ankle),膝部(knee),少见于腕部(wrist),肘部(elbow)突发性的灼痛,僵直和肿胀。此病多见于老年男性,痛风可能由饮酒(alcohol),进食动物内脏器官(organ meats)而加重。

三,其它,others:字母顺序,alphabetic order

Ambulance 救护车, Anesthetic 麻醉剂, Basin 洗脸盆, Bath 冲澡, Bed sheet changed 换床单, Blanket 毛毯, Bleeding 流血, Blood sugar 血糖, Blood test 验血 Breathe in 吸气, Breathe out 呼气, Call bell 床头呼叫器, Care card 医疗卡, Cholesterol 胆固醇, Cold 冷,感冒, Colour of stool 大便的颜色, Coma 昏迷, Comb 木梳, Consent form 同意背书(通常在手术,输血,作特殊检查时由医生解释过程,患者亲自签署同意的表格,这是就医的法律程序之一), Cough 咳嗽, Cough syrup 止咳糖浆, Cramps 抽筋,绞痛, Crutches 拐杖, Deep breath 深呼吸, Denture 假牙, Diabetic diet 糖尿病饮食, Dietitian 营养师, Electrocardiogram 心电图(简称ECG), Emergency 急诊室,紧急事件, Extra blanket 额外毛毯, Face cloth 擦脸毛巾, Family members 家庭成员, Flu shot 流感疫苗, General check up 全身检查, Gown 病号服(这里病房多是袍式的), Hearing aid 助听器, Heart beat 心跳, Heating pad 加温袋 , High temperature 高烧, House keeping 医院里的保洁员, Ice pad 冰袋, Indigestion 消化不良, Injection 注射, Insulin injection 胰岛素注射, Intensive care 重症护理, Intestine 肠(大肠large intestine, 小肠 small intestine), Intravenous injection 静脉内输液, Itchy 瘙痒, Kidney basin 弯形托盘(床上刷牙,盛呕吐秽物用的) Laxative 泻药, Lean back 靠后, Lean forward 靠前, Liquid 液体, Low salt diet 低盐饮食, Low urine output 少尿, Mammogram 乳腺x光扫描, Mask 口罩, Measure blood pressure 测血压, Medical history 病史, Morphine 吗啡, Nervous 紧张, Oatmeal 麦片粥, Occupational therapist 功能恢复治疗师(简称OT), Operation room 手术室(简称OR) Oxygen 氧气, Pain killer 止痛药, Panic 惊惶失措, Pharmacy 药房, Pharmacist 药剂师, Physiotherapist 理疗师(简称PT), Pillow 枕头, Pillow case 枕头套, Pulse 脉搏, Radiation 放疗, Razor 剃须刀, Recover 恢复, Recovery room (手术后)麻醉恢复室, Rectum 直肠, Respiratory Therapist 呼吸治疗师(简RT), Result 结果, Sleepy 困倦,欲睡, Sleeping pill 安眠药, Slippers 拖鞋, Solid 固体, Specialist 专科医生, Steroid 类固醇激素, Stretch 伸展, Suppository 肛门用栓剂(如通便用的甘油条,退热用的太诺栓等), Surgeon 外科医生, Swollen 肿胀, Take temperature 检温, Thermometer 体温计, Tired 疲倦(术语叫fatigue), Tissue 面巾纸(也叫其品牌名Kleenex), Toast 烤面包片, Toothbrush 牙刷, Towel 大毛巾 Tremors 颤抖, Turn left or turn right 向左右转身, Ultrasound 超声波检查, Urine volume 尿量, Vegetarian diet 素食餐, Visitors 探视者, Wake up 醒来, Walker 助行器, Wheelchair 轮椅(电动轮椅叫Electrical wheelchair), Wheeled walker 带轮子的助行器(在大街上你可以看到许多老人推着走,刹了手闸可以坐下来休息的那种)

四,老年常见疾病,Most common senior disease

Alzheimer’s disease 老年痴呆症, Anemia 贫血, Anxiety attack 神经衰弱症, Arthritis 关节炎(具体见上), Asthma 哮喘, Benign Prostate Hypertrophy 前列腺肥大(简称BPH), Bronchitis 支气管炎, Cancer 癌症, Cataract 白内障, Cirrhosis of liver 肝硬化, Congestive heart failure 充血性心衰, Coronary heart disease 冠心病, Depression 抑郁症, Diabetes 糖尿病, Diarrhea 腹泻, Duodenal ulcer 十二指肠溃疡, Epilepsy,or seizures 癫痫,抽搐, Flu 流感, Frozen shoulder 肩周炎,老年肩, Gastric ulcer 胃溃疡, Glaucoma 青光眼, Gout 痛风, Heart attack 心肌梗塞, Hemorrhoid 痔疮, Hepatitis 肝炎, Hernia 疝气, Herpes (Shingles)带状疱疹, High blood pressure (Hypertension)高血压, Hip fracture 髋骨骨折, Hysterectomy 子宫切除, Insomnia 失眠, Kidney stone 肾石, Low blood pressure (Hypotension) 低血压, Mastectomy 乳房切除, Menopause 更年期, Migraine 偏头痛, Osteophytes (bony spurs)骨刺, Osteoporosis 骨质疏松症, Paralysis 瘫痪, Parkinson’s disease 帕金森氏综合症, Pneumonia 肺炎, Pulmonary edema 肺水肿, Stroke 中风, Thyroid disorder 甲状腺功能紊乱, Tumour 肿块, Urinary Tract Infection 尿路感染(简称UTI)

我所能想到的,加上查了些资料,就总结这些,总算完成一项大任务,舒了口气。刚刚接到通知,下个月我就可以获得全职护士工作了,很开心。知道那是个据说本地区全新的护理项目,满具挑战性的,工作节奏可能更紧凑,又有许多新知识要学了,自己的时间真的需要重新安排一下,毕竟是有家庭的人,决定就此网络潜水了。感谢大家在我这近半年Rolia冲浪中给我的支持鼓励,批评指正,祝大家心想事成,健康快乐。

来源:枫下论坛
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仅供参考,本文不代表波士顿生活网的观点,请咨询专业人士.